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Sommaires des Revues - Pediatric Neurosurgery

PNE : Last 10 articles


Last 10 articles published in Pediatric Neurosurgery


Isolated Traumatic Diastasis of the Clival Synchondroses without Clival Fracture  Voir?

Traumatic clival fractures in the pediatric population are associated with high mortality rates. In our previously reported series, a subset of clival fractures were associated with traumatic diastasis of the surrounding clival synchondroses. Herein, we describe a pediatric case of an isolated traumatic diastasis of the clival synchondroses without clival fracture with significant injury to neurovascular structures. To our knowledge this is the first report to describe this entity. Careful radiological attention should be made towards the clival synchondroses in crushing head injuries to best tailor screening for cerebrovascular injury even in the absence of clival fractures.
Pediatr Neurosurg

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Significance of FDG-PET Hypermetabolism in Children with Intractable Focal Epilepsy  Voir?

Background: Interictal 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission topography (FDG-PET) hypometabolism is routinely used in the presurgical workup of children with medically intractable epilepsy (MIE). FDG-PET hypermetabolism, however, is rarely seen, and the significance of this finding in the epilepsy workup is not well established. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent FDG-PET during the presurgical workup of MIE over a 4-year period, between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013, at the Children’s Hospital Colorado, CO, USA. Results: Focal FDG-PET hypermetabolism was identified in 7 (2.2%) of 317 patients. The median age was 124 months, all cases with catastrophic epilepsy. Surface electroencephalography (EEG) performed concomitantly with FDG injections revealed ictal EEG discharges in 2 patients, frequent interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in 3, occasional IEDs in 1, and no IEDs in 1. All 7 patients underwent functional hemispherectomies. Histopathology revealed type 1 focal cortical dysplasia in all patients. Six (86%) were completely seizure-free (Engel class I) and 1 had extremely infrequent seizures (Engel class II) (mean follow-up, 47.4 months). Conclusion: While a rare finding, interictal PET hypermetabolism does occur, may help identify epileptogenic zones, and assessment to reveal it should be made by concomitant use of surface EEG during PET scans.
Pediatr Neurosurg

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Delayed Chronic Subdural Hematoma after Total Cranial Vault Reconstruction for Sagittal Synostosis  Voir?

When diagnosed and treated after the first year of life, the surgical management of sagittal synostosis typically necessitates total cranial vault reconstruction. The safety of total cranial vault reshaping has improved greatly over the past 3 decades. We report on the first published case of an asymptomatic 5-year-old patient who was found to have a large left sided chronic subdural hematoma 4 months after total cranial vault reshaping requiring surgery, detected on routine imaging. We hypothesize that augmentation of venous blood egression through the emissary veins during surgery may have led to venous hypertension and subsequently the development of the chronic subdural hematoma.
Pediatr Neurosurg

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A Multimodal Approach to the Treatment of Intraparenchymal Meningioma in a 7-Year-Old Boy: A Case Report  Voir?

Intraparenchymal meningiomas are very rare: only 26 cases have been diagnosed in patients younger than 20 years since 1954. They can lead to preoperative differential diagnosis mistakes due to their atypical neuroimaging appearance. A multimodal approach is thus necessary to plan a surgical procedure aiming to receive the best extent of resection while preserving the patient’s functional integrity. The authors report the case of a 7-year-old boy with a history of blurred vision, left eye deviation, and weakness on the left side of his body. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intra-axial, cortical, right parietal lesion without dural attachment. MR spectroscopy and perfusion study were obtained. Since the patient was 100% left-handed, functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and neuropsychological evaluation were performed before the surgical procedure. Histopathological analysis revealed the mass to be an atypical meningioma (WHO grade II). Postoperative MRI indicated complete macroscopic lesion removal. The postsurgical neuropsychological profile was not different from the profile before surgery. The boy was discharged 3 days after the surgical operation without any neurological deficits.
Pediatr Neurosurg

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If It’s Not Broken, Should We Fix It? Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Catheter Contributing to Closed-Loop Small Bowel Obstruction in a Pediatric Patient with Ileostomy  Voir?


Pediatr Neurosurg
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Surgical Treatment of Spinal Deformities in Young Paraplegic Children with Intraspinal Tumors  Voir?

Bilateral vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) treatment using rib-to-pelvis constructs without touching the spine is a safe surgical technique to correct scoliosis while still allowing further MRI or neurosurgical interventions. In this retrospective cohort study, 4 paraplegic children with spinal deformity after intraspinal tumors and 4 children with neuromuscular diseases were compared. VEPTR treatment was able to considerably reduce the main scoliotic curve in both patient groups (41 vs. 40%). However, the tumor group constantly showed more severe curve progression over time and less favorable pelvic obliquity control. In conclusion, bilateral VEPTR can be expected to be less satisfying in children with tumors.
Pediatr Neurosurg

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Cervical Myelopathy Caused by Invaginated Laminae of the Axis into the Spinal Canal in a Pediatric Patient  Voir?

Cervical myelopathy caused by invaginated laminae of the axis is an extremely rare entity. Advanced imaging techniques are useful to define this rare pathology and site of the spinal canal compression. Surgical removal of the floating laminae is commonly an adequate treatment method. Fusion procedures should be added in the presence of instability. There are few cases of invaginated anomalous laminae of the axis in the literature. In this report, to the best of our knowledge having reviewed the literature, the youngest and first female patient is presented.
Pediatr Neurosurg

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Spontaneous Ventriculostomy into the Subdural Space in a Neonate with Congenital Hydrocephalus  Voir?

We report a case of spontaneous temporary resolution of congenital hydrocephalus due to drainage into the subdural space, which is not a physiological space for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This is the first report of spontaneous drainage of CSF into the subdural space, and we term it “ventriculosubdurostomy.” We highlight the fact that spontaneous resolution of hydrocephalus due to drainage into a nonphysiological CSF space is temporary.
Pediatr Neurosurg

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Occipital Condyle Fracture Extending to the Inferior Part of the Clivus  Voir?

Although rarely reported in the literature, serious occipital and condylar fractures have been diagnosed more often with the widespread use of computed cranial tomography in traumas. In this paper, a 16-year-old female with a left occipital fracture extending from the left occipital condyle anterior of the hypoglossal canal to the inferior part of the clivus is presented. The fracture which had caused a neurological deficit was cured with conservative treatment. For delayed hypoglossal nerve paralysis due to swelling within the canal, methylprednisolone was started, and a complete cure was attained in about 10 days. Traumatic damage of bony structures of the condyle and clivus at the junction of many vital nerves, vessels, and ligaments may lead to traumatic deficit and death.
Pediatr Neurosurg

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Urgent Optic Nerve Decompression via an Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach for Craniopharyngioma in a 12-Month-Old Infant: A Case Report  Voir?

Craniopharyngiomas are benign tumors and account for approximately 5.6–13% of all intracranial tumors in children. Diagnosis of pediatric craniopharyngioma is often delayed until the tumor becomes relatively large and manifests severe visual and/or endocrine disturbance. Endoscopic endonasal approaches have recently been introduced to surgery for craniopharyngioma. These techniques, however, have rarely been utilized in patients affected with craniopharyngioma as young as 1 year old. This report documents a 12-month-old male infant with sellar craniopharyngioma who presented with acute total vision loss. To increase the chances of visual recovery, an endoscopic endonasal optic nerve decompression was performed as an urgent procedure. After decompression, which resulted in improvement of his visual disturbance, gross total resection of the tumor was undertaken through an anterior interhemispheric approach at a later date. Tumor mass reduction through an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach followed by secondary radical total resection under craniotomy was considered to be useful in cases such as this when urgent optic nerve decompression is required.
Pediatr Neurosurg

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Dernière mise à jour : 22/04/2018 : 06:41


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